Fokiano is a grapevine variety of eastern Mediterranean and of triple use. It has been cultivated in almost all viticultural regions of Greece with main cultivation center the island of Ikaria, where it occupies more than 70% of surface area. Because of its geographical spread, it is mentioned under many synonyms, like Damaskinato stafyli, Iri-kara (black prune), Erikaras and Rikaras, Fokiana, Kokkino razaki and others. Its owes its name to the city of Fokaia of Asia Minor (Logothetis and Vlachos 1963). Rovasenda (1887) mentions “Sri-kara” and “Sriskara” as grape of Syria, while Pulliat (1888) describes variety Iri-kara with white berries. Viala and Vermorel (1909) mention the variety as “Fourkiano” and describe it as “Phokiano” (Ericara, Iri-Cara, Iri-Kara, Iris-kara). Krimbas (1943a) mentions three color variations, Fokiano mavro, Fokiano kokkineli and Fokiano aspro which were cultivated mainly in Limnos, Cyclades and secondarily in Crete (Prefecture of Lasithi) and Evvoia. He also considers grapevine variety Armeletousa, which is cultivated in Andros and the rest of Cyclades, as very closely related to Fokiano. These variations had similar ampelographic characters of the young shoot, young and mature leaf. Differences were observed in the ampelographic characters of the shape and size of the bunch, the technological characters of the berries (color, firmness of flesh etc.) and productivity (descending order Fokiano mavro, Fokiano kokkineli, Fokiano aspro). The grapevine variety which is cultivated and described today corresponds more to Fokiano mavro. Logothetis and Vlachos (1963) also mention that grapevine varieties Armeletousa and Giouroukiko are closely related to Fokiano. The cultivation of grapevine variety Fokiano is recommended for the viticultural areas of Cyclades, Dodecanese, Thrace as well as in many Prefectures across Greece (Samos, Lesvos, Chalkidiki, Chania, Arkadia etc.).